Category Archives: English

Synonyms and Antonyms

Synonyms and Antonyms Letter A

Synonyms and Antonyms

We are going to learn Synonyms and Antonyms of letter A.

Abandon

Synonyms – Desert, Give up, Forsake, Bereave, leave, Quit, Relinquish; Abdicate; Surrender; Resign.

Antonyms – Continue; Persist; Cherish; Maintain; Retain; Uphold; Defend; assert; Favour; Adopt; Support.

Abandoned

Synonyms – Forsaken; Given up; Left; Deserted; Shunned; Repudiated; Relinquished; Vacated; Surrendered; Wicked; Immoral; Impure; Corrupt

Antonyms – Cherished; Maintained; Upheld; Favored; Defended; Chaste; Pure; Moral; Innocent.

Abattoir

Synonyms – Slaughterhouse, Altar.

Aberration

Synonyms – Straying; Distortion Deviation; Variation; Irregularity; Divergence; Insanity; Eccentricity; Wandering; Anomaly; Peculiarity.

Antonyms – Firmness; Rigidity; Regularity; Sanity; Sobriety; Rationality; Coolness.

Abeyance

Synonyms – Suspension; Inactivity; Inaction; Dormancy; Adjournment; Reservation; Expectancy.

Antonyms – Enforcement; Operation; Revival; Resuscitation; Action; Renewal; Exercise.

Abnegation

Synonyms – Sacrifice; Refusal; Self-denial; Renunciation; Abjuration; Denial; Surrender.

Antonyms – Indulgence; Profession; Excess; Luxury; Extravagance; Intemperance; Immoderation.

Abolish

Synonyms – End; put to an end; Remove; Eradicate; Do away with; Disestablish; Destroy; Annihilate; Demolish; Abrogate; Annul; Extinguish; Exterminate; Revoke.

Antonyms – Retain; Continue; Establish; Restore; Revive; Repair; Support; Sustain; Ratify; Enforce.

Abomination

Synonyms – Detestation; Hatred; Dislike; Disgust; Nuisance; Corruption; Evil; Horror; Shame; Aversion-Wickedness; Anathema.

Antonyms – Cleanliness; Purity; Beauty; Loveliness; Blessing; Happiness; Joy; Benefit; Affection.

Abort

Synonyms – Miscarry; End prematurely; Terminate; Halt; Check; Stop; Fell; Arrest; Go wrong.

Antonyms – Achieve; Get; Obtain; Accomplish; Complete; Finish; Conclude; Consummate; Realize; Effect; Acquire; Impregnate.

Abortive

Synonyms – Futile; Fruitless; Unsuccessful; Useless; Vain; Ineffective; Ineffectual; Unproductive; Inoperative; Worthless.

Antonyms – Fruitful; Successful; Useful; Effective; Effectual; Satisfactory; Productive; Operative.

Abrade

Synonyms – Rub; Erase; Abradere; Scrape off; Wear away; Erode; Obliterate; Scratch; Scrape; Wear Down.

Abridge

Synonyms – Shorten; Cut short; Curtail; Reduce; Diminish; Summarise; Abbreviate; Analyse; Abstract.

Antonyms – Enlarge; Extend; Increase; Expand; Add.

Abrogate

Synonyms – Abolish; Nullify; Annul; Cancel; Revoke; Repeal; Vacate; Void; Quash; Negate; Expunge; Countermand; Invalidate; Overrule.

Antonyms – Enact; Sanction; Pronounce; Ordain; Establish; Validate; Rule; Ratify; Sanction; Authorize; Decree.

Abruptly

Synonyms – Suddenly; Quickly; Hastily; shortly; Accidentally; Impetuously; Brusquely; Unexpectedly; Brokenly; Roughly; Unevenly; Disconnectedly.

Antonyms – Gradually; Regularly; Generally; Evenly; Continuously; Progressively; Slowly; Moderately.

Absorbed

Synonyms – Flee; Run away; Escape; Run off; Depart; Leave; Hide; Slip away; Bolt; Disappear; Decamp; Retreat; Withdraw.

Antonyms – Stay; Remain; Continue; Abide; Stop Endure; Stand Firm; Tarry.

Absorbed

Synonyms – Engaged; Engrossed; Assimilated; engulfed; Imbibed; Consumed; Merged.

Antonyms – Disgorged; Ejected; Exuded; Emitted; Dissipated; Dispersed; Spewed; Bleched.

Abstruse

Synonyms – Complex; Difficult; Profound; Recondite; Abstract; Subtle; Deep; Obscure; Mysterious; Esoteric.

Antonyms – Distinct; Clear; Evident; Lucid; Vivid’ Comprehensible; Knowable; Known; Manifest; Unequivocal; Unambiguous.

Absurd

Synonyms – Unreasonable; Foolish; Ridiculous; Stupid; Silly; Senseless; Nonsensical; Ludicrous; False Erroneous; Mistaken; Anomalous; Paradoxical.

Antonyms – Rational; Reasonable; Wise; Sound; True; Sensible; Infallible; Unquestionable; Certain.

Abundance

Synonyms – Foolishness; Nonsense; Foolery; Stupidity; Folly; Senselessness; Silliness; Idiocy; Ineptness; Simplicity; Short-sightedness.

Antonyms – Cautiousness; Prudence; Wisdom; Cunningness; Alertness; Aptness.

Abundant

Synonyms – Plentiful; Abounding; Ample; Copious; Full; Lavish; Flowing; Profuse; Opulent.

Antonyms – Scanty; Insufficient; Meagre; Little; Few; Scarce; Small; Tiny; Bare.

Accentuate

Synonyms – Emphasize; Stress; Acent; Affirm; Underline; Exaggerate; Mark; Highlight; Draw Attention to.

Accessary

Synonyms – Assistant; Partner; Co-partner; Helper; Accomplice; Henchman; Follower; Colleague; Associate; Participator.

Antonyms – Enemy; Foe; Opponent; Betrayer; Antagonist; Adversary; Rival; Opposer; Hinderer; Informer; Spy; Attacker.

Accessory

Synonyms – Addition; Adornment; Component; Extra; Supplement; Decoration; Attachment; Accompaniment; Appendage; Extention; Auxiliary; Ancillary.

Antonyms – Essential; Necessary; Requisite; Must; Rudiment; Vital pat; Fundamental.

Accolade

Synonyms – Award; Honour; Hugging; Embracement; Kiss; Laurels; Praise Prize. Conferment; Gift; Endowment.

The Prelude, MA in English

The Prelude

The Prelude may be classed somewhat loosely as an epic; it does not satisfy all the traditional qualifications of that genre. The epic is customarily defined as a long narrative poem which recounts heroic actions.

commonly legendary or historical, and usually of one principal hero (from whence it derives its unity). The Prelude take its unity from the fact that the central “hero” is its author

The poem is written blank  verse, unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter with certain permissible substitutions of trochees and anapests to relieve the monotony of the iambic foot and with total disregard for the stanza from.

In the middle of the eighteenth century, there was an eclipse of interest in the rhymed  heroic couplet. A revival of interest in Milton led to the establishment of Miltonic blank verse as the standard medium for lengthy philosophical or didactic poetical works.

The resulting form came to be called the “literary” epic as opposed to heroic and folk epic. To this type, Wordsworth, with his unconventional ideas of diction brought a natural and conversational tone.

9th Class English, The Snake and the Mirror

Thomas Shadwell

Thomas Shadwell was born at either Bromehill Farm, Weeting-with-Broomhill or Santon House, Lynford, Norfolk, and he was educated at Bury St Edmunds School, and at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, which he entered in 1656. He left the university without a degree.

Thomas Shadwell

He joined the Middle Temple. At the Whig triumph in 1688, he superseded John Dryden as poet laureate and historiographer royal. He died at Chelsea on 19 November 1692. He was buried in Chelsea Old Church, but his tomb was destroyed by wartime bombing; however a memorial to him survives in Poets’ Corner in Westminster Abbey.

Mac Flecknoe

Mac Flecknoe

It is about Mac Flecknoe When Dryden wrote the poem the political scene of England was dominated by two political parties: The Tories and the Whigs. The Whigs were led by the Earl of Shafts bury who in 1979 introduced the Exclusion Bill in the Parliament following the revelation of a Popish plot to kill Charles II and put James, the the Duke of York, on the throne and also to bring the French army into England.Mac Flecknoe

The object of the Bill was to press the claims of the Duke of Monmouth an illegitimate son of Charles, to the throne. The Bill was passed in the Common but defeated in the Lord’s.

The Country was on the verge of Civil War. The king arrested Shafts bury and banished the Duke of monmouth. But the Jury of Middle sex rejected the treason charges against Shafts bury and released him immediately. To Celebrate the success the Whigs struck a medal bearing the head and name of their hero.

Dryden published his satire. The Medal criticizing the Whigs. There were several replies from the Tories. Thomas Shadwell wrote The Medal of John Bayes Which was actually an indecent and unfair attack of Dryden’s personal life Mac Flecknoe was Dryden’s reply to Shadwell.

Dryen’s poem is a satire. It’s tone is mock heroic and the poet uses irony with telling effect. Richard Flecknoe is ready to vacate his title as the world’s worst poet. A worthy successor has to be chosen. The choice falls on Shadwell. He is to be crowned the king of the realm of dullness.

The venue for the coronation is in Barbican; a suburb notorious for its low and vulgar life. The Ceremony is performed with the usual rites now shown in a new, ludicrous light.

The Waste Land

The Waste Land

Eliot’s The Waste Land is I think the justification of the Movement of our modern experiment, since 1900. He wrote Ezra Pound shortly after the poem was published in 1922. T.S. Eliot’s poem describes a mood of deep disillusionment stemming both from the collective experience of the First World War. and from Eliot’s personal travails.

Born in St. Louis, Eliot had studied at Harvard, the Sorbonne, and Oxford before moving to London, where he completed his doctoral dissertation on the philosopher F. H. Bradley. Because of the war, he was unable to return to the United states to receive his degree.

He taught grammar school briefly and then took a job at Lloyd’s Bank, Where he worked for eight years. Unhappily married, he suffered writer’s block and then a breakdown soon after the war and wrote most of The Waste Land While recovering in a sanatorium in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the age of 33.

Eliot later described the poem as the relief of a personal and wholly insignificant grouse against life. Just a piece of rhythmical grumbling. Yet the poem seemed to his contemporaries to transcend Eliot’s personal situation and represent a general crisis in western culture.

One of its major themes is the barrenness of a post war world in which human sexuality has been perverted from its normal course and the natural world too has become infertile. Eliot went on to convert to a High Church form of Anglicanism, become a naturalized British subject, and turn to conservative politics.

The Waste Land was quickly recognized as a major statement of modernist poetics, both for its broad symbolic significance and for Eliot’s masterful use of formal techniques that earlier modernists had only begun to attempt. The critic I.A. Richards influentially praised Eliot for describing the shared post war “sense of desolation, of uncertainty, of futility, of the groundlessness of aspirations, of the vanity of endeavor.

and a thirst for a life-giving water which seems suddenly to have failed. Eliot later complained that approving critics like Richards said that I had expressed the disillusionment of a generation, Which is nonsense.

9th Class English, The Snake and the Mirror

The Snake and the Mirror

The Snake and the Mirror

“HAS a snake ever coiled itself round any part of your body? A full-blooded cobra?” All of us fell silent. The question came from the homeopath. The topic came up when we were discussing snakes. We listened attentively as the doctor continued with his tale. It was a hot summer night; about ten o’clock. I had my meal at the restaurant and returned to my room. I heard a noise from above as I opened the door. The sound was a familiar one. One could say that the rats and I shared the room. I took out my box of matches and lighted the kerosene lamp on the table.

Keynotes  Solution

language-acquisition-device-noam-chomsky

Generative Grammar

Generative Grammar in English

Generative Grammar – It is the theory of language proposed by Chomsky in his Syntactic Structures 1957. It provides a set of finite rules that defines the unlimited number of sentences of the language and associates each with an appropriate grammatical description. Generative Grammar in English is the Theory of language.

Generative Grammar

Principal goals

There are two principal goals which underline this theory. These are:

The universal features i.e. features which are intrinsic to language as a whole, which constitute grammars of individual language should be characterised in formal terms.

Formal statements should be provided for characterising the grammars of individual languages. This goal is equated with characterising the tacit knowledge or competence which native speakers have about syntactic, phonological, morphological and semantic patterning in their language. Generative grammar sees the theory of competence as forming a central component of language which interacts with principles from cognition. neurology, physiology and other domains to give language its overall character.

the-three-kinds-of-signs-in-linguistics-1-638

The Concept of Linguistic Sign

The Concept of Linguistic Sign

The concept of linguistic sign was given by the famous linguistic Ferdinand DE Saussure (1857-1923). According to him, the pairing of word-labels and meaning concepts produce a system of signs. Each sign consists of two parts: a signifies i.e. a label and a signified i.e. the concept. It is important to note that the actual sign is not one or the other or both; the sign is the association the blinds the label and the concept together. In the pictures below , we give visual illustrations of the signs for “tree” and “book”.saussure-sign

Notice that the sounds or letters involved in speaking or writing the words tree and book have nothing to do with the objects “tree” and “book”; any other set of sounds would do just as well. Hindi speakers, for example, use the sequence p-e-R for the object ‘tree’ and the sequence k-i-aa-b for the object ‘book’. However , once these correspondence are established, they acquire a fairly permanent place in out minds.

We often wonder how we would function if we did not develop this important mechanism. Imagine how you would feel if you were to coin a new word every time you see a new chair. And then different people in the same community may coin very different words for the same object and it may  become impossible to talk to each other. If i want to talk to you, then we must share not only the same words but also the concepts these these words denote. According to Saussure,

The concept of the linguistic sign of the linguistic sign is often used to suggest that our thoughts are entirely formed by our language. Hindi speakers have only one word barf for the object for which English speakers have at least two i.e. ice and snow; and Eskimos have more than twenty. So speakers of Hindi, English and Eskimo languages perhaps see the world very differently and their perception are conditioned by their languages.

Does everyone see the same number and kinds of colors?  Do two different communities living in the same environment classify and categorize the flora and fauna around them in the same way? Is there only one ‘Reality’ there? Or is it the case, that different languages produce different versions of external reality? What happens to people who know and use many languages at the same time?

The characteristics of human language

The Characteristics of Human Language

The Characteristics of Human Language

As mentioned earlier, one of the best ways to understand what human language is, to compare it with other systems of animal communication and try to understand the similarities and differences between the two. This is precisely what we will do in this section. we will understand the characteristics of human language.

Use of sound signals

The use of sound signals is perhaps the most obvious characteristic of human language. But this feature is neither unique to human beings nor all important. It is not unique to humans as a lot of other animals also use sounds for communication. and it is not important. because human beings can transfer language to visual symbols and tactile symbols human communication from animal communication.

Arbitrariness

In the case of animals there is generally an apparent relation between the signal. and the message the animal wishes to convey. For example, an animal who wishes to warn off an opponent. That  will generally simulate an attacking attitude. A Cat, for example, will arch its back, spit and appear ready to pounce.

So we can say that although both humans and other animals seem to be genetically predisposed to acquire language. It seems in humans, this latent potentiality can only activated by long exposure to language. Which requires careful learning.

Displacement

Most animals can communicate about things in the immediate environment only. A bird utters its cry of danger when danger is present. It cannot give information about a danger. Which is removed in time and place.

Creativity

Most animals have a fixed number of messages. which are sent in clearly definable circumstances. For example, a North American cicada can give only four messages and a male grasshopper has a choice of six. Research conducted on dolphins, birds and bees has also shown that they are unable to say anything new.

Duality or double articulation

Animals who use sound signals for communicating have a finite set of basis sounds. The number of basic sounds varies from species to species. Cows, for example, have less than ten, whereas foxes have over thirty.

Patterning

Close to the phenomena of duality is patterning. As you are aware most animal systems of communication comprise a simple list of sounds. There does not seem to be any internal organisation within the system.

Structure dependence

Human beings instinctively understand the patterned nature of language, and manipulate structured chunks of language they understand that a group of following sentences

A bouquet of flowers was given to me by the boy who proposed to me.

 

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What is Language

What is language – MEG

What is language

The term language has been defined differently by different people. Let us look at some of these definition to understand what language is :

Language is that system by which sounds and meaning are related – Fromkin and Rodman, 1974 has defined language in their term.

Language is the most advanced and flexible means that is available to human beings for the communication of meaning – This Definition has been defined by Brown 1984

One of the best ways to understand human language is to

What is language

compare it with animal communication. and to see where the similarities and differences lie.

How and Why Did Language Originate?

No one knows exactly how language originated. and because of this, there is no dearth of opinion about the origins of human speech. Let us briefly understand some of these.

The Divine Source Theory – According to one view, God created Adam and Whatsoever Adam called every living creature that was the name thereof. According to Hindu tradition, Language came from goddess Saraswati. In most religions, there appears to be a divine source that provided humans with language. Generally, every society has a divine story to tell about the origins of its language. We also notice that alphabetical symbols or ideographs used in writing are often associated with divine images.

The Natural Sound Source Theory – Another view of the origin of human speech is based on the concept of natural sounds. The theory suggests that first words were imitations of the natural sounds which early men and women heard around them. The fact that all languages have some words which seem to echo naturally occurring sounds could have led to this theory. cuckoo, bang, buzz, hiss, bow-bow, etc. are some examples from English. In fact, this type of view has been called the bow-bow theory of language origin.

The Pooh-Pooh Theory – In 1871, in his Descent of Man, Darwin proposed that like man himself, his language also developed from a more primitive form. probably from expressions of emotions. for example, a feeling of contempt is accompanied by the action of puffing of air out through the nostrils or the mouth and this action makes sounds like Pooh or Pish. The critics of Darwin’s theory scornfully named it the Pooh – Pooh theory.

The Ding-Dong Theory – Muller, a contemporary of Darwin, proposed the ding-dong theory of the origin of language. According to this theory, there was a mystic relationship between sound and meaning. There was an instinct in the primitive human being, by which every impression from without received a vocal expression from within. Just as a particular sound is produced when any object is struck by a solid body, similarly human being’s mind gave a particular response to every impact the world made upon it. For example, the sight of a snake rang a bell and the primitive human instinctively said “snake”.

As is clear from the above discussion, it is a big puzzle as to how language began but, why language began seems to be rather clear. Language must have evolved because humans needed it for the following purposes –

To give factual information and to convey commands. This is also called information talking.

To convey emotions and feelings.

To maintain social contact on a friendly level. This is also called phatic communication or language of social chitchat or small talk.

For aesthetic reasons like poetry.

To relieve nervous tension.