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Computer Basic Concepts

Computer Basic Concepts

Computer Basic Concepts

Learning Computer Basic is now become very easy, what you have to do is to learn through practically. as we know Computer Basic Concepts are common to learn. we should have these basic concepts knowledge before we start learning computer course. So, here is the fundamental or Basic Concepts of Computer are discussed below.

INTRODUCTION

Computers have made great inroads in our everyday life and thinking. They are put to use for all sorts of applications ranging from complex calculations in the field or front line research, engineering simulations down to teaching, printing books and recreational games. The ease with which computers can process data, store and retrieve it painlessly have made them inevitable in office and business environments. The areas of applications of computers are confined only by limitations on human creativity and imagination. In fact, any task, that can be carried out systematically, can be performed by a computer. Therefore, it is essential for every educated person today to know about computer, its strengths, its weaknesses and its internal structure. And that is what we are going to explain in this going to explain in this chapter.

WHAT IS A COMPUTER?

DEF – A computer is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations in accordance with a set of instructions called program.

Computer can access and process data millions of times faster than humans can. A computer can store data and information in its memory, process them and produce the desired results. Computers can do a lot of different tasks such as playing games, railway reservation, weather forecasting, error detection and controlling the flight of a space aircraft etc.

A computer is used essentially as a data processor. The terms data and information are very commonly used. You must clearly understand the difference between the two.

Data – Data in computer terminology mean raw facts and figures. For example “Mohan’ 1977, ‘A’, – 162.19, + 75.2 are data. Data are processed to form information.

Information – It means what we get after processing data (meaningful data). Data are aggregated and summarized in various meaningful ways to form information. For example ‘Mohan, whose roll number is 1977, has got grade A’ is an information as it is conveying some meaning.

Functioning of a Computer

As you know that a computer is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations accordance with a set of instruction called program. In this section, we shall discuss the functioning of computer. But before we start discussing the functioning of a computer, let us understand the way we function.

To understand this, we will take some examples.

  1. Consider a case when your mother asks you to bring a cake and pastries for a party from the market. You go to the market, purchase both the things and give it to your mother.
  2. You want to talk to one of your friends. His phone number is 7455165. So you dial up the number and speak to your friend.
  • Your mom has to make tea. So she takes some things (ingredients) i.e. ¾ cup of water ½ teaspoon tealeaves, ½ teaspoon sugar and ½ cup of milk. She makes the tea by following certain steps like boiling water, adding tealeaves sugar and milk Finally you get prepared tea.

These examples illustrate the way we human beings function. Consider all the three examples. There are certain things common in them. In all the examples certain things were needed to work upon, the actual work was then carried out accordingly and finally the result was obtained. Following table 1.1 explains it.

 

Table 1.1. Input, Process and Output in the tasks performed

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
 

 

Example 1

Thing(s) to work upon

 

Mummy’s order of purchasing cake and pastries.

 

The actual work taking place

Going to bazaar and purchasing.

The Result

 

Purchased cake and pastries.

Example 2 Your desire to make a phone call at number 7455165. Making phone call. Chat with your friend.
Example 3 Making a cup of tea with given ingredients The process if making tea. Prepared tea.

 

All the examples undergo these three stages. The first stage (things to work upon) is called input stage. The second stage (the actual work being performed) is called process stage and the third stage (the result) is called output stage. Certain input is needed to accomplish a task. A process is carried out on the input to obtain the output.

Every task follows this Input-Process-Output cycle (IPO cycle in short). A computer is not an exception to this rule. A computer also follows the I-P-O cycle i.e., it needs certain input, carries out a process and produces the output.

Synonyms and Antonyms

Synonyms and Antonyms Letter A

Synonyms and Antonyms

We are going to learn Synonyms and Antonyms of letter A.

Abandon

Synonyms – Desert, Give up, Forsake, Bereave, leave, Quit, Relinquish; Abdicate; Surrender; Resign.

Antonyms – Continue; Persist; Cherish; Maintain; Retain; Uphold; Defend; assert; Favour; Adopt; Support.

Abandoned

Synonyms – Forsaken; Given up; Left; Deserted; Shunned; Repudiated; Relinquished; Vacated; Surrendered; Wicked; Immoral; Impure; Corrupt

Antonyms – Cherished; Maintained; Upheld; Favored; Defended; Chaste; Pure; Moral; Innocent.

Abattoir

Synonyms – Slaughterhouse, Altar.

Aberration

Synonyms – Straying; Distortion Deviation; Variation; Irregularity; Divergence; Insanity; Eccentricity; Wandering; Anomaly; Peculiarity.

Antonyms – Firmness; Rigidity; Regularity; Sanity; Sobriety; Rationality; Coolness.

Abeyance

Synonyms – Suspension; Inactivity; Inaction; Dormancy; Adjournment; Reservation; Expectancy.

Antonyms – Enforcement; Operation; Revival; Resuscitation; Action; Renewal; Exercise.

Abnegation

Synonyms – Sacrifice; Refusal; Self-denial; Renunciation; Abjuration; Denial; Surrender.

Antonyms – Indulgence; Profession; Excess; Luxury; Extravagance; Intemperance; Immoderation.

Abolish

Synonyms – End; put to an end; Remove; Eradicate; Do away with; Disestablish; Destroy; Annihilate; Demolish; Abrogate; Annul; Extinguish; Exterminate; Revoke.

Antonyms – Retain; Continue; Establish; Restore; Revive; Repair; Support; Sustain; Ratify; Enforce.

Abomination

Synonyms – Detestation; Hatred; Dislike; Disgust; Nuisance; Corruption; Evil; Horror; Shame; Aversion-Wickedness; Anathema.

Antonyms – Cleanliness; Purity; Beauty; Loveliness; Blessing; Happiness; Joy; Benefit; Affection.

Abort

Synonyms – Miscarry; End prematurely; Terminate; Halt; Check; Stop; Fell; Arrest; Go wrong.

Antonyms – Achieve; Get; Obtain; Accomplish; Complete; Finish; Conclude; Consummate; Realize; Effect; Acquire; Impregnate.

Abortive

Synonyms – Futile; Fruitless; Unsuccessful; Useless; Vain; Ineffective; Ineffectual; Unproductive; Inoperative; Worthless.

Antonyms – Fruitful; Successful; Useful; Effective; Effectual; Satisfactory; Productive; Operative.

Abrade

Synonyms – Rub; Erase; Abradere; Scrape off; Wear away; Erode; Obliterate; Scratch; Scrape; Wear Down.

Abridge

Synonyms – Shorten; Cut short; Curtail; Reduce; Diminish; Summarise; Abbreviate; Analyse; Abstract.

Antonyms – Enlarge; Extend; Increase; Expand; Add.

Abrogate

Synonyms – Abolish; Nullify; Annul; Cancel; Revoke; Repeal; Vacate; Void; Quash; Negate; Expunge; Countermand; Invalidate; Overrule.

Antonyms – Enact; Sanction; Pronounce; Ordain; Establish; Validate; Rule; Ratify; Sanction; Authorize; Decree.

Abruptly

Synonyms – Suddenly; Quickly; Hastily; shortly; Accidentally; Impetuously; Brusquely; Unexpectedly; Brokenly; Roughly; Unevenly; Disconnectedly.

Antonyms – Gradually; Regularly; Generally; Evenly; Continuously; Progressively; Slowly; Moderately.

Absorbed

Synonyms – Flee; Run away; Escape; Run off; Depart; Leave; Hide; Slip away; Bolt; Disappear; Decamp; Retreat; Withdraw.

Antonyms – Stay; Remain; Continue; Abide; Stop Endure; Stand Firm; Tarry.

Absorbed

Synonyms – Engaged; Engrossed; Assimilated; engulfed; Imbibed; Consumed; Merged.

Antonyms – Disgorged; Ejected; Exuded; Emitted; Dissipated; Dispersed; Spewed; Bleched.

Abstruse

Synonyms – Complex; Difficult; Profound; Recondite; Abstract; Subtle; Deep; Obscure; Mysterious; Esoteric.

Antonyms – Distinct; Clear; Evident; Lucid; Vivid’ Comprehensible; Knowable; Known; Manifest; Unequivocal; Unambiguous.

Absurd

Synonyms – Unreasonable; Foolish; Ridiculous; Stupid; Silly; Senseless; Nonsensical; Ludicrous; False Erroneous; Mistaken; Anomalous; Paradoxical.

Antonyms – Rational; Reasonable; Wise; Sound; True; Sensible; Infallible; Unquestionable; Certain.

Abundance

Synonyms – Foolishness; Nonsense; Foolery; Stupidity; Folly; Senselessness; Silliness; Idiocy; Ineptness; Simplicity; Short-sightedness.

Antonyms – Cautiousness; Prudence; Wisdom; Cunningness; Alertness; Aptness.

Abundant

Synonyms – Plentiful; Abounding; Ample; Copious; Full; Lavish; Flowing; Profuse; Opulent.

Antonyms – Scanty; Insufficient; Meagre; Little; Few; Scarce; Small; Tiny; Bare.

Accentuate

Synonyms – Emphasize; Stress; Acent; Affirm; Underline; Exaggerate; Mark; Highlight; Draw Attention to.

Accessary

Synonyms – Assistant; Partner; Co-partner; Helper; Accomplice; Henchman; Follower; Colleague; Associate; Participator.

Antonyms – Enemy; Foe; Opponent; Betrayer; Antagonist; Adversary; Rival; Opposer; Hinderer; Informer; Spy; Attacker.

Accessory

Synonyms – Addition; Adornment; Component; Extra; Supplement; Decoration; Attachment; Accompaniment; Appendage; Extention; Auxiliary; Ancillary.

Antonyms – Essential; Necessary; Requisite; Must; Rudiment; Vital pat; Fundamental.

Accolade

Synonyms – Award; Honour; Hugging; Embracement; Kiss; Laurels; Praise Prize. Conferment; Gift; Endowment.

Matter In Our Surrounding | Class 9th Science

Hello Everyone, here I have covered Science Notes for Class 9th. The Chapter, I have covered here is Matter In Our Surrounding. here, you will have many question for practice at the end of the notes.

Topics covered in this notes, are very easy to understand. every points has clear definition with examples. what you learn here is best than learning from text books.

Once you have started learning from the notes, you will see some important section. each section define you the topic very good. Have a quick look at down to the topics, that you are going to learn.

  1. Chapter at a Glance
  2. Matter and Its Physical Nature of Particles
  3. Characteristics of Particles
  4. States of Matter
  5. Change of State of Matter
  6. By Changing the Temperature
  7. Effect of Change of Pressure
  8. Important Questions

Click Here For Complete Notes for Chapter 1